1. 17:54 12th Aug 2014

    Notes: 601

    Reblogged from nursingisinmyblood

    biomedicalephemera:

Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease
In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.
Infectious diseases:
Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
Cause clinically evident disease.
Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.
Contagious diseases:
Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.
Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 
Highly infectious:
Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.
Highly contagious: 
Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
Can be spread through airborne droplets.
To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.
However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.
Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

    biomedicalephemera:

    Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease

    In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.

    Infectious diseases:

    • Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
    • Cause clinically evident disease.
    • Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
    • Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
    • Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.

    Contagious diseases:

    • Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
    • Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
    • Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
    • Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.

    Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 

    Highly infectious:

    • Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
    • Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.

    Highly contagious:

    • Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
    • Can be spread through airborne droplets.

    To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.

    However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.

    Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

     
  2. 02:38 30th Jul 2014

    Notes: 444

    Reblogged from inthewards

    Tags: medical

    blue-lights-and-tea:

Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    blue-lights-and-tea:

    Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    (Source: nurse-on-duty)

     
  3. 18:00 22nd Jul 2014

    Notes: 42

    Reblogged from fuckyeahnarcotics

    Tags: gynecology

    image: Download

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

    Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

     
  4. image: Download

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

    4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

     
  5. 15:36 18th Jul 2014

    Notes: 833

    Reblogged from medstudentinoz

    medstudentinoz:

    Here is a list of websites for med students (or anyone else) who needs access to practice questions, quizzes, or just better and cheaper resources for histology, pathology, biology, anatomy, and other subjects. Some of these I have mentioned in past posts, but this post consolidates them into one…

     
  6. 17:25 16th Jul 2014

    Notes: 770

    Reblogged from ermedicine

    Anonymous said: I know a lot of people that have gotten sick from flu shots. I have never had the flu and stop getting vaccines years ago. You're the ignorant fuck if you think people "need" vaccines. It is a persons right to deny them and given a hell of a lot of proof people are justified to deny them as well

    aspiringdoctors:

    Ignorant fuck must be some new compliment because all these anti-vaxxers keep calling me that. You angels. I think I’ll hang it next to my BFA and my not giving a fuck lifetime achievement award, but still leaving room on the wall for my MD, which is currently in progress and halfway completed.

    Spoiler alert #1: you can’t get the flu from the flu vaccine, which covers some strains of influenza. It’s literally impossible. You can, however, get a flu-like illness from over a dozen other viruses, some of which have the same seasonal prevalence as influenza.

    Spoiler alert #2: Your personal experience as a single unvaccinated person does not have any statistical significance. I’m really stoked you, a presumably healthy younger type of person with a functioning immune system and halfway decent nutrition, have not gotten the flu. I am. The flu sucks. However, babies, pregnant people, people with compromised immune systems or even chronic medical conditions such as asthma, and elderly, are very much at risk. When you, healthy person, get vaccinated, you do a little part to maybe prevent one of them from getting the flu and developing nasty complications such as deadly pneumonia.

    Spoiler alert #3:

    THERE.

    IS.

    NO.

    JUSTIFICATION.

    FOR.

    DENYING.

    VACCINES.

    PERIOD.

    I’ll tell you who needs vaccines:  this baby, who I saw last night on my overnight shift in the pediatric ER. And here is a post where I admittedly was real snarky BECAUSE THIS SHIT IS GETTING REAL OLD OK GUYS and it has some really good graphs from an excellent lecture I went to about the public health impact of vaccines (in case the crapton of links above isn’t enough to make you reconsider your stance maybe some graphs will, I dunno how your brains work).

     
  7. 11:58 11th Jul 2014

    Notes: 663

    Reblogged from uaortho

    uaortho:

    Nerves dude. They’re a thing.

     
  8. 19:28 5th Jul 2014

    Notes: 39

    Reblogged from radiologysigns

    image: Download

    radiologysigns:

What findings have we marked on this image? What would you see with an ophthalmoscope?
ANSWER: http://goo.gl/gpRKlr

    radiologysigns:

    What findings have we marked on this image? What would you see with an ophthalmoscope?

    ANSWER: http://goo.gl/gpRKlr

     
  9. 12:33 29th Jun 2014

    Notes: 2935

    Reblogged from ragincontagion

    image: Download

    ragincontagion:

A horizontal skull fracture. The subject smacked their head against a tree as their vehicle slide to a stop against it.
For those of you who have always wondered what the inside of your skull looks like without a brain in it, now you know. The cranial fossa is actually quite interesting to examine.

    ragincontagion:

    A horizontal skull fracture. The subject smacked their head against a tree as their vehicle slide to a stop against it.

    For those of you who have always wondered what the inside of your skull looks like without a brain in it, now you know. The cranial fossa is actually quite interesting to examine.

     
  10. 14:13 19th Jun 2014

    Notes: 197

    Reblogged from medicalexamination

     
  11. 18:36 17th Jun 2014

    Notes: 328

    Reblogged from aspiringdoctors

    emt-monster:

    Skin turgor in severe dehydration

    A man was admitted with severe dehydration, hypotension and altered level of conciousness.

    The volume depletion was demonstrated by sqeezing the abdominal skin (panel A) and assessing the response 15 seconds (Panel B) and 40 seconds (Panel C) after the pressure was released.

    The patient received a total of 10 litres of fluid in 24 hours and improved greatly.

    NEJM

     
  12. biovisual:

    THE CELL CYCLE AND ITS SAFEGUARDS AGAINST CANCER
    SOURCE: PZ Myers (Pharyngula)

    TOP IMAGE
    Dividing cells follow a cycle.

    • Most cells are in G1 (Gap 1), doing what cells do.
    • Then under control of clock-like changes in specific genes, they can enter the S (synthesis) phase, when their DNA is replicated,
    • followed by a G2 phase (gap 2),
    • and then an actively dividing mitotic or M phase.

    Each of these phases has a checkpoint where a battery of proteins survey the state of the cell and either permit the process to proceed, or block it if there are problems.

    In extreme cases, the checkpoint proteins can determine that the cell is so irreparably damaged that the only option is suicide, and the cell will self destruct.

    MIDDLE IMAGE
    This is the process that cancer needs to disrupt if it is to continue; cancer cells typically have damaged DNA or aberrant signals flying everywhere that ought to be triggering all kinds of alarms in the checkpoint system, and either stopping cell division immediately, or activating repair mechanisms that fix the damage, or just killing the corrupted cell immediately.

    One of the most critical points in this cycle is called the R or Restriction point.

    • Prior to the R point, the cell is sensitive to external signals that can induce cell division;
    • after this point, the cell no longer pays attention to those signals, because it is on a rigidly programmed track towards completing cell division.

    The R point is that last fateful moment of decision before the cell commits to dividing.

    BOTTOM IMAGE
    Standing at this point is an essential guardian of the cell cycle, pRb. This protein is an inhibitor of cell division, acting as a tumor suppressor gene. It’s the guard at the gate, and it must be satisfied that all is well in the cell before it will allow division to continue.

    pRb’s default mode is to stop cell division, but it receives signals from a wide array of pathways that can tell it to stand down and let the process continue.

    Control of this gene is complicated because it is so essential to well-regulated cell division: look at it here, standing sentry just above the yellow R point, with all these other pathways talking to it.

    I think you can see how this gene can contribute to cancer when it’s defective. Shoot the guard, open the gate wide, and allow cell divisions to proceed unchecked.

    This passage is a part of PZ Myers’ much longer critique of an article on the evolution of cancer by two physicists, Paul Davies and Charles Lineweaver, ‘Cancer tumors as Metazoa 1.0: tapping genes of ancient ancestors” (Phys. Biol. 8 015001-015008).

    This gives me general bio 1 flashbacks.