1. 11:34 13th Oct 2014

    Notes: 632

    Reblogged from inthewards

    image: Download

    md-admissions:

modernathena90:

mynotes4usmle:

SPINAL CORD LESIONS

@

I just want to thank whoever made this beautiful table

    md-admissions:

    modernathena90:

    mynotes4usmle:

    SPINAL CORD LESIONS

    @

    I just want to thank whoever made this beautiful table

     
  2. 12:33 4th Oct 2014

    Notes: 43

    Reblogged from radiopaedia

    image: Download

    radiopaedia:

What’s your diagnosis for this slow growing pulsatile mass?
ANSWER: http://goo.gl/bbsJAZ

    radiopaedia:

    What’s your diagnosis for this slow growing pulsatile mass?

    ANSWER: http://goo.gl/bbsJAZ

     
  3. 16:05 1st Oct 2014

    Notes: 458

    Reblogged from medicalexamination

    Tags: anatomyneuro

    image: Download

    brains-and-bodies:

From Daily Anatomy







Incredible view of the Corpus callosum! "The cerebral hemispheres are divided right down the middle into a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere. Each hemisphere appears to be specialized for some behaviors.The hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick band of 200-250 million nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. (A smaller band of nerve fibers called the anterior commissure also connects parts of the cerebral hemispheres.)It connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres.As a last resort, the corpus callosum can be severed so that communication between the cerebral hemispheres is interrupted in cases of severe intractable epilepsy, but of course you can imagine that this is accompanied by strong neuropathological symptoms!”Image found on bobschuster.com
 

    brains-and-bodies:

    From Daily Anatomy

    Incredible view of the Corpus callosum! 

    "The cerebral hemispheres are divided right down the middle into a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere. Each hemisphere appears to be specialized for some behaviors.

    The hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick band of 200-250 million nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. (A smaller band of nerve fibers called the anterior commissure also connects parts of the cerebral hemispheres.)

    It connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres.

    As a last resort, the corpus callosum can be severed so that communication between the cerebral hemispheres is interrupted in cases of severe intractable epilepsy, but of course you can imagine that this is accompanied by strong neuropathological symptoms!”

    Image found on bobschuster.com
     
     
  4. 10:53 29th Sep 2014

    Notes: 1344

    Reblogged from fyeahmedlab

    image: Download

    mynotes4usmle:

ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)
Also, REMEMBER!!!!
* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:
Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:
Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
Carbapenems 
Monobactams
Beta-lactamase inhibitors
* Penicillins enhanced with:
Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)
* Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam
* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)
* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)
* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.
* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime
* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.
* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 
L  isteria monocytogenes
A  typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
M RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
E  nterococci

* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan & Cefoperazone (mnemonic)
* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!
All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
Disulfiram-like effect
* Against Pseudomonas:
3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
Antipseudomonal penicillins
Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)
Aztreonam (pseudomonal sepsis)
* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.
* Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Dalfopristin/Quinupristin
* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.
* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)
* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?
Q uinolones
Sulfonamides
T etracyclines

* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides
* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis
* Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.
* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.
* Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.
* QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

    mynotes4usmle:

    ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)

    Also, REMEMBER!!!!

    * Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:

    • Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
    • Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding

    Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:

    • Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
    • Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
    • Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)

    Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:

    • Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
    • 3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
    • Carbapenems 
    • Monobactams
    • Beta-lactamase inhibitors

    * Penicillins enhanced with:

    • Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
    • Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)

    Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam

    * Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)

    * Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)

    * Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.

    * 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime

    * 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.

    * Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 

    • L  isteria monocytogenes
    • A  typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
    • RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
    •  nterococci

    image

    * Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan Cefoperazone (mnemonic)

    * Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!

    • All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
    • All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
    • Disulfiram-like effect

    * Against Pseudomonas:

    • 3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
    • 4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
    • Antipseudomonal penicillins
    • Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)
    • Aztreonam (pseudomonal sepsis)

    * Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.

    Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Dalfopristin/Quinupristin

    * Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.

    * DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)

    * Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?

    • uinolones
    • Sulfonamides
    • T etracyclines

    image

    * p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides

    * Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis

    Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.

    * Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.

    Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.

    QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

     
  5. image: Download

    malformalady:

Tetracycling staining of the teeth. Tetracycline is an antibiotic medication designed to fight bacterial infections. Prior to the 1980s, this widely used antibiotic was often given to pregnant women or children under the age of 8 whose teeth were not fully developed. The resulting discoloration can affect an entire tooth, or can form horizontal stain bands—almost like stripes—that can range from light to very dark.

    malformalady:

    Tetracycling staining of the teeth. Tetracycline is an antibiotic medication designed to fight bacterial infections. Prior to the 1980s, this widely used antibiotic was often given to pregnant women or children under the age of 8 whose teeth were not fully developed. The resulting discoloration can affect an entire tooth, or can form horizontal stain bands—almost like stripes—that can range from light to very dark.

     
  6. 16:17 20th Sep 2014

    Notes: 1358

    Reblogged from neuromorphogenesis

    neuromorphogenesis:

    Hacking The Brain

    Abuse of these mind hacking drugs is one of the fastest growing problems of our generation. As long as doctors keep prescribing these harmful drugs to too many youngsters the problem will continue to grow. Although some children really do need these drugs to function regularly, my personal opinion is that the requirements and potency of these drugs should wait until the patient is of age – the same as tobacco or alcohol. The availability of these drugs to young Americans needs to diminish if the trend of usage wants to decrease.

    - By AllTreatment

     
  7. 00:02 16th Sep 2014

    Notes: 45

    Reblogged from fyeahmedlab

    pubhealth:


Cryptosporidium (also known as “Crypto”)


Causal Agent and Life Cycle (above):
Many species of Cryptosporidium exist that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Although Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (formerly known as C. parvum anthroponotic genotype or genotype 1) are the most prevalent species causing disease in humans, infections by C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. muris have also been reported.
Follow steps in graph above:
Sporulated oocysts, containing 4 sporozoites, are excreted by the infected host through feces and possibly other routes such as respiratory secretions . Transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water (e.g., drinking or recreational water). Occasionally food sources, such as chicken salad, may serve as vehicles for transmission. Many outbreaks in the United States have occurred in waterparks, community swimming pools, and day care centers. Zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum and anthroponotic transmission of C. hominis occur through exposure to infected animals or exposure to water contaminated by feces of infected animals . Following ingestion (and possibly inhalation) by a suitable host , excystation  occurs. The sporozoites are released and parasitize epithelial cells (, ) of the gastrointestinal tract or other tissues such as the respiratory tract. In these cells, the parasites undergo asexual multiplication (schizogony or merogony) (, , ) and then sexual multiplication (gametogony) producing microgamonts (male)  and macrogamonts (female) . Upon fertilization of the macrogamonts by the microgametes (), oocysts (, ) develop that sporulate in the infected host. Two different types of oocysts are produced, the thick-walled, which is commonly excreted from the host , and the thin-walled oocyst , which is primarily involved in autoinfection. Oocysts are infective upon excretion, thus permitting direct and immediate fecal-oral transmission.Note that oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis, another important coccidian parasite, are unsporulated at the time of excretion and do not become infective until sporulation is completed. Refer to the life cycle of Cyclospora cayentanensis for further details.
(From CDC)

    pubhealth:

    Causal Agent and Life Cycle (above):

    Many species of Cryptosporidium exist that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Although Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (formerly known as C. parvum anthroponotic genotype or genotype 1) are the most prevalent species causing disease in humans, infections by C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. muris have also been reported.

    Follow steps in graph above:

    Sporulated oocysts, containing 4 sporozoites, are excreted by the infected host through feces and possibly other routes such as respiratory secretions The number 1. Transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water (e.g., drinking or recreational water). Occasionally food sources, such as chicken salad, may serve as vehicles for transmission. Many outbreaks in the United States have occurred in waterparks, community swimming pools, and day care centers. Zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum and anthroponotic transmission of C. hominis occur through exposure to infected animals or exposure to water contaminated by feces of infected animals The number 2. Following ingestion (and possibly inhalation) by a suitable host The number 3, excystation The letter A occurs. The sporozoites are released and parasitize epithelial cells (The letter B, The letter C) of the gastrointestinal tract or other tissues such as the respiratory tract. In these cells, the parasites undergo asexual multiplication (schizogony or merogony) (The letter D, The letter E, The letter F) and then sexual multiplication (gametogony) producing microgamonts (male) The letter G and macrogamonts (female) The letter H. Upon fertilization of the macrogamonts by the microgametes (The letter I), oocysts (The letter j, The letter K) develop that sporulate in the infected host. Two different types of oocysts are produced, the thick-walled, which is commonly excreted from the host The letter j, and the thin-walled oocyst The letter K, which is primarily involved in autoinfection. Oocysts are infective upon excretion, thus permitting direct and immediate fecal-oral transmission.
    Note that oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis, another important coccidian parasite, are unsporulated at the time of excretion and do not become infective until sporulation is completed. Refer to the life cycle of Cyclospora cayentanensis for further details.

    (From CDC)

     
  8. 17:54 12th Aug 2014

    Notes: 612

    Reblogged from nursingisinmyblood

    biomedicalephemera:

Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease
In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.
Infectious diseases:
Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
Cause clinically evident disease.
Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.
Contagious diseases:
Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.
Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 
Highly infectious:
Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.
Highly contagious: 
Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
Can be spread through airborne droplets.
To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.
However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.
Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

    biomedicalephemera:

    Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease

    In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.

    Infectious diseases:

    • Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
    • Cause clinically evident disease.
    • Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
    • Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
    • Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.

    Contagious diseases:

    • Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
    • Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
    • Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
    • Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.

    Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 

    Highly infectious:

    • Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
    • Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.

    Highly contagious:

    • Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
    • Can be spread through airborne droplets.

    To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.

    However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.

    Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

     
  9. 02:38 30th Jul 2014

    Notes: 496

    Reblogged from inthewards

    Tags: medical

    blue-lights-and-tea:

Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    blue-lights-and-tea:

    Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    (Source: nurse-on-duty)

     
  10. 18:00 22nd Jul 2014

    Notes: 42

    Reblogged from fuckyeahnarcotics

    Tags: gynecology

    image: Download

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

    Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

     
  11. image: Download

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

    4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

     
  12. 15:36 18th Jul 2014

    Notes: 848

    Reblogged from medstudentinoz

    medstudentinoz:

    Here is a list of websites for med students (or anyone else) who needs access to practice questions, quizzes, or just better and cheaper resources for histology, pathology, biology, anatomy, and other subjects. Some of these I have mentioned in past posts, but this post consolidates them into one…