1. biomedicalephemera:

    DIPHTHERIA! KEEP OUT!

    As with scarlet fever, diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) only becomes the dread disease that was quarantined and feared after it becomes infected with a toxin-producing bacteriophage (bacteria-infecting virus). You can be infected with an uninfected strain of C. diphtheriae and not develop any illness - the disease itself requires both the virus AND bacteria (well, one inside the other, of course).

    When C. diphtheriae starts exuding toxins, it’s not surprising that the disease was so frightening. Those toxins enter the cells of the nasopharynx and inhibit protein synthesis, which eventually causes apoptosis (cell death), localized necrosis, and inflammation from the body’s response to the dead and dying cells.

    The Strangling Death

    The combination of those exotoxins, and the body’s response to the bacteria and affected epithelial cells, creates diphtheria’s strangling effects. Bluish skin, cough, difficult and painful swallowing, and rapid difficult breathing are all a result of the swelling and pseudomembrane formation in the throat.

    Despite antitoxins, antibiotics, and incredibly sophisticated intensive care units, this disease still kills nearly 10% of all patients, and 20% of those under five or over forty. Diphtheria can kill either by strangulation or overloading the organs of the body with toxins; when adults die of the disease, toxin overload is more common than strangulation. Even when patients survive, heart damage from myocarditis and lingering pain from peripheral neuropathy can continue to cause problems for months or years.

    Textbook of Pediatrics.
    Julius Parker Sedgwick and Carl Ahrendt Scherer, 1922.

     
  2. image: Download

    smellslikecadaverine:

Ocular manifestation of electrical burn.
A 42-year-old male electrician presented to the eye clinic with decreasing vision 4 weeks after an electrical burn of 14,000 V to the left shoulder. His vision in both eyes was limited to perception of hand motions. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral stellate anterior subcapsular opacities of the lens. Four months after the injury, the patient underwent cataract extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens, which was followed by improvement in visual acuity.

    smellslikecadaverine:

    Ocular manifestation of electrical burn.

    A 42-year-old male electrician presented to the eye clinic with decreasing vision 4 weeks after an electrical burn of 14,000 V to the left shoulder. His vision in both eyes was limited to perception of hand motions. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral stellate anterior subcapsular opacities of the lens. Four months after the injury, the patient underwent cataract extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens, which was followed by improvement in visual acuity.

     
  3. image: Download

    homo-medicus:

There are large, flat-topped, confluent cobblestone papillae in the upper palpebral conjunctiva in the right eye. Tarsal conjunctiva shows loss of architecture, scarring, and hyperemia. These findings are most consistent with a diagnosis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. The patient responded well to a supratarsal injection of triamcinolone acetonide.

    homo-medicus:

    There are large, flat-topped, confluent cobblestone papillae in the upper palpebral conjunctiva in the right eye. Tarsal conjunctiva shows loss of architecture, scarring, and hyperemia. These findings are most consistent with a diagnosis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. The patient responded well to a supratarsal injection of triamcinolone acetonide.

     
  4. radiopaedia:

What vertebral abnormality is seen in this two year old? ANSWER: http://goo.gl/Xn0IvK

    radiopaedia:

    What vertebral abnormality is seen in this two year old? ANSWER: http://goo.gl/Xn0IvK

     
  5. 16:00 14th Apr 2014

    Notes: 984

    Reblogged from medicalexamination

    Tags: medical

    image: Download

    thenursingblog:

Charts & Figures: Know Your Abdominal Pains

    thenursingblog:

    Charts & Figures: Know Your Abdominal Pains

    (Source: )

     
  6. 15:22

    Notes: 92

    Reblogged from medicalexamination

    Tags: medical

    (Source: magicmedic)

     
  7. 22:30 13th Apr 2014

    Notes: 433

    Reblogged from i-heart-histo

    i-heart-histo:

    Ever pondered how much embryology looks like fruit (and a nut)?

    No?

    Weirdos.

    i-heart-histo

    - inspired by s submission here

    Update: For those of you wondering about the pear. It is indeed a buddah shaped pear. You can grow your own buddah pear (or square watermelon, or heart-shaped cucumber) using specially designed moulds. Purchase your buddah pear mould here!!!

     
  8. 14:08 12th Apr 2014

    Notes: 733

    Reblogged from dieselotherapy

    Tags: medical

    image: Download

    medicalschool:

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart. Veins differ from arteries in structure and function; for example, arteries are more muscular than veins, veins are often closer to the skin and contain valves to help keep blood flowing toward the heart, while arteries carry blood away from the heart
Image: Video of venous valve in action

    medicalschool:

    Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart. Veins differ from arteries in structure and function; for example, arteries are more muscular than veins, veins are often closer to the skin and contain valves to help keep blood flowing toward the heart, while arteries carry blood away from the heart

    Image: Video of venous valve in action

     
  9. 00:23

    Notes: 1137

    Reblogged from beegoestomedicalschool

    Tags: spinebonemedical

    biomedicalephemera:

    Ankylosing spondylitis in the wrists, forearms, and spinal column

    Note the fused wrist bones in the arms, and the abnormal protuberances, fusions, and cavities in the spine.

    Ankylosing spondylitis (also known as Bechterew’s disease) is an inflammatory spondyloarthropathy (arthritis affecting the spinal column), and its name comes from the Greek “ankylos-”, meaning “crooked”. Spondylitis can be broken down into “spondyl-” and “-itis”, which mean “spine” and “inflammation”, respectively.

    Simply put, it’s a fusion of the joints in the axial skeleton (the spinal column, ribcage, and cervical collar), but there’s little else that’s simple about this condition. While it’s known to have a strong genetic predisposition and heritability, the exact triggers that begin the process of syndesmophytosis (literally "the process of abnormal binding together") which fuse bones together is not known.

    While many of the genetic and immune factors in AS similar to those in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylopathy has been differentiated from other RA conditions as early as the second century CE, by Galen. Because of its effect on the spinal column, AS has long been known as "bamboo spine".

    Unfortunately, despite many treatments and therapies being available to counteract the effects of this autoimmune condition on the bones and organs, there is no cure.

    Observations on the hip joint: to which are added … other similar complaints. Edward Ford, 1810.

     
  10. 14:40 10th Apr 2014

    Notes: 996

    Reblogged from dieselotherapy

    Tags: medical

    medicalschool:

deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, predominantly in the legs. Non-specific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins.
Images: Venograms of DVT

    medicalschool:

    deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, predominantly in the legs. Non-specific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins.

    Images: Venograms of DVT

    (Source: Wikipedia)

     
  11. allheartcare:

    An overview of Atrial Fibrillation

     
  12. 17:19

    Notes: 268

    Reblogged from mymedicalblog

    Tags: medicalanatomymuscle

    image: Download

    (Source: yoyoyogaga)