1. 00:02 16th Sep 2014

    Notes: 39

    Reblogged from fyeahmedlab

    pubhealth:


Cryptosporidium (also known as “Crypto”)


Causal Agent and Life Cycle (above):
Many species of Cryptosporidium exist that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Although Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (formerly known as C. parvum anthroponotic genotype or genotype 1) are the most prevalent species causing disease in humans, infections by C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. muris have also been reported.
Follow steps in graph above:
Sporulated oocysts, containing 4 sporozoites, are excreted by the infected host through feces and possibly other routes such as respiratory secretions . Transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water (e.g., drinking or recreational water). Occasionally food sources, such as chicken salad, may serve as vehicles for transmission. Many outbreaks in the United States have occurred in waterparks, community swimming pools, and day care centers. Zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum and anthroponotic transmission of C. hominis occur through exposure to infected animals or exposure to water contaminated by feces of infected animals . Following ingestion (and possibly inhalation) by a suitable host , excystation  occurs. The sporozoites are released and parasitize epithelial cells (, ) of the gastrointestinal tract or other tissues such as the respiratory tract. In these cells, the parasites undergo asexual multiplication (schizogony or merogony) (, , ) and then sexual multiplication (gametogony) producing microgamonts (male)  and macrogamonts (female) . Upon fertilization of the macrogamonts by the microgametes (), oocysts (, ) develop that sporulate in the infected host. Two different types of oocysts are produced, the thick-walled, which is commonly excreted from the host , and the thin-walled oocyst , which is primarily involved in autoinfection. Oocysts are infective upon excretion, thus permitting direct and immediate fecal-oral transmission.Note that oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis, another important coccidian parasite, are unsporulated at the time of excretion and do not become infective until sporulation is completed. Refer to the life cycle of Cyclospora cayentanensis for further details.
(From CDC)

    pubhealth:

    Causal Agent and Life Cycle (above):

    Many species of Cryptosporidium exist that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Although Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (formerly known as C. parvum anthroponotic genotype or genotype 1) are the most prevalent species causing disease in humans, infections by C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. muris have also been reported.

    Follow steps in graph above:

    Sporulated oocysts, containing 4 sporozoites, are excreted by the infected host through feces and possibly other routes such as respiratory secretions The number 1. Transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water (e.g., drinking or recreational water). Occasionally food sources, such as chicken salad, may serve as vehicles for transmission. Many outbreaks in the United States have occurred in waterparks, community swimming pools, and day care centers. Zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum and anthroponotic transmission of C. hominis occur through exposure to infected animals or exposure to water contaminated by feces of infected animals The number 2. Following ingestion (and possibly inhalation) by a suitable host The number 3, excystation The letter A occurs. The sporozoites are released and parasitize epithelial cells (The letter B, The letter C) of the gastrointestinal tract or other tissues such as the respiratory tract. In these cells, the parasites undergo asexual multiplication (schizogony or merogony) (The letter D, The letter E, The letter F) and then sexual multiplication (gametogony) producing microgamonts (male) The letter G and macrogamonts (female) The letter H. Upon fertilization of the macrogamonts by the microgametes (The letter I), oocysts (The letter j, The letter K) develop that sporulate in the infected host. Two different types of oocysts are produced, the thick-walled, which is commonly excreted from the host The letter j, and the thin-walled oocyst The letter K, which is primarily involved in autoinfection. Oocysts are infective upon excretion, thus permitting direct and immediate fecal-oral transmission.
    Note that oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis, another important coccidian parasite, are unsporulated at the time of excretion and do not become infective until sporulation is completed. Refer to the life cycle of Cyclospora cayentanensis for further details.

    (From CDC)

     
  2. 17:54 12th Aug 2014

    Notes: 606

    Reblogged from nursingisinmyblood

    biomedicalephemera:

Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease
In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.
Infectious diseases:
Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
Cause clinically evident disease.
Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.
Contagious diseases:
Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.
Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 
Highly infectious:
Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.
Highly contagious: 
Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
Can be spread through airborne droplets.
To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.
However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.
Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

    biomedicalephemera:

    Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease

    In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.

    Infectious diseases:

    • Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
    • Cause clinically evident disease.
    • Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
    • Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
    • Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.

    Contagious diseases:

    • Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
    • Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
    • Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
    • Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.

    Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 

    Highly infectious:

    • Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
    • Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.

    Highly contagious:

    • Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
    • Can be spread through airborne droplets.

    To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.

    However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.

    Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

     
  3. 02:38 30th Jul 2014

    Notes: 448

    Reblogged from inthewards

    Tags: medical

    blue-lights-and-tea:

Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    blue-lights-and-tea:

    Very useful! Lots of us forget to look at the nails but they always give a clue.

    (Source: nurse-on-duty)

     
  4. 18:00 22nd Jul 2014

    Notes: 42

    Reblogged from fuckyeahnarcotics

    Tags: gynecology

    image: Download

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

    fuckyeahnarcotics:

    Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

     
  5. image: Download

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

    (via Figure 2: Chylous ascites. - Open-i)

    4 liters of milky fluid drained from a patient with chylous ascites.

     
  6. 15:36 18th Jul 2014

    Notes: 832

    Reblogged from medstudentinoz

    medstudentinoz:

    Here is a list of websites for med students (or anyone else) who needs access to practice questions, quizzes, or just better and cheaper resources for histology, pathology, biology, anatomy, and other subjects. Some of these I have mentioned in past posts, but this post consolidates them into one…

     
  7. 17:25 16th Jul 2014

    Notes: 775

    Reblogged from ermedicine

    Anonymous said: I know a lot of people that have gotten sick from flu shots. I have never had the flu and stop getting vaccines years ago. You're the ignorant fuck if you think people "need" vaccines. It is a persons right to deny them and given a hell of a lot of proof people are justified to deny them as well

    aspiringdoctors:

    Ignorant fuck must be some new compliment because all these anti-vaxxers keep calling me that. You angels. I think I’ll hang it next to my BFA and my not giving a fuck lifetime achievement award, but still leaving room on the wall for my MD, which is currently in progress and halfway completed.

    Spoiler alert #1: you can’t get the flu from the flu vaccine, which covers some strains of influenza. It’s literally impossible. You can, however, get a flu-like illness from over a dozen other viruses, some of which have the same seasonal prevalence as influenza.

    Spoiler alert #2: Your personal experience as a single unvaccinated person does not have any statistical significance. I’m really stoked you, a presumably healthy younger type of person with a functioning immune system and halfway decent nutrition, have not gotten the flu. I am. The flu sucks. However, babies, pregnant people, people with compromised immune systems or even chronic medical conditions such as asthma, and elderly, are very much at risk. When you, healthy person, get vaccinated, you do a little part to maybe prevent one of them from getting the flu and developing nasty complications such as deadly pneumonia.

    Spoiler alert #3:

    THERE.

    IS.

    NO.

    JUSTIFICATION.

    FOR.

    DENYING.

    VACCINES.

    PERIOD.

    I’ll tell you who needs vaccines:  this baby, who I saw last night on my overnight shift in the pediatric ER. And here is a post where I admittedly was real snarky BECAUSE THIS SHIT IS GETTING REAL OLD OK GUYS and it has some really good graphs from an excellent lecture I went to about the public health impact of vaccines (in case the crapton of links above isn’t enough to make you reconsider your stance maybe some graphs will, I dunno how your brains work).

     
  8. 11:58 11th Jul 2014

    Notes: 678

    Reblogged from uaortho

    uaortho:

    Nerves dude. They’re a thing.

     
  9. 19:28 5th Jul 2014

    Notes: 39

    Reblogged from radiologysigns

    image: Download

    radiologysigns:

What findings have we marked on this image? What would you see with an ophthalmoscope?
ANSWER: http://goo.gl/gpRKlr

    radiologysigns:

    What findings have we marked on this image? What would you see with an ophthalmoscope?

    ANSWER: http://goo.gl/gpRKlr

     
  10. 12:33 29th Jun 2014

    Notes: 3026

    Reblogged from ragincontagion

    image: Download

    ragincontagion:

A horizontal skull fracture. The subject smacked their head against a tree as their vehicle slide to a stop against it.
For those of you who have always wondered what the inside of your skull looks like without a brain in it, now you know. The cranial fossa is actually quite interesting to examine.

    ragincontagion:

    A horizontal skull fracture. The subject smacked their head against a tree as their vehicle slide to a stop against it.

    For those of you who have always wondered what the inside of your skull looks like without a brain in it, now you know. The cranial fossa is actually quite interesting to examine.

     
  11. 14:13 19th Jun 2014

    Notes: 199

    Reblogged from medicalexamination

     
  12. 18:36 17th Jun 2014

    Notes: 328

    Reblogged from aspiringdoctors

    emt-monster:

    Skin turgor in severe dehydration

    A man was admitted with severe dehydration, hypotension and altered level of conciousness.

    The volume depletion was demonstrated by sqeezing the abdominal skin (panel A) and assessing the response 15 seconds (Panel B) and 40 seconds (Panel C) after the pressure was released.

    The patient received a total of 10 litres of fluid in 24 hours and improved greatly.

    NEJM